April 22, 1833

22 April: Early in the morning, very bright, clear, and beautiful. At 7:30, 64 1/2°F [ 18.1°C]. At six o’ clock, several islands; a very narrow channel, eroded ravines alongshore, narrow channels; to the left there was already prairie on some of the hills. To the right there was a rugged, densely wooded bank, where the willows were turning green. The skipper held the ship so close to the left bank that our chickens flew there. On the island to the right, a dense understory, and on the ground, dense rushes (Equisetum), now turning green. The river spread out again behind the islands; here there were sandbars, which we kept to the right.

Soon we reached denuded hills to the left with individual trees and tall stumps from the felled trees; a steep approach to the top of the green hills, where a sentry stood. Here a large group of people sat and watched us; this is the landing place for Cantonment Leavenworth, situated on the elevation. Cantonment LeavenworthM42Last military outpost. was designed for four companies of regular military, which, however, altogether number only 120 men. They are commanded by Major Riley. To reinforce them, another one hundred rangers (mounted, nonuniformed but wellarmed men), who in emergencies have to make forays against the Indians, have been added; they have a motley appearance and include all types of people. There are seven houses here for the officers and men, one depot, and one for the artillery, and about seven additional dwellings; they are located on the other side of a hill. The major’ s house is located right on top of the elevation and is rather imposing.

[Page 2:31]The nearest Indians live 20 miles away; they are Delawares and members of other tribes that have been displaced. Kickapoos, several of whom will soon be arriving from St. Louis, have also been settled in the vicinity. Dougherty, whom we found here, brought several of these Indians on board; they wished to be taken along some 20 miles farther. Mr. Bodmer sketched one of them, who was already old. Here about thirty to forty of our people were sent out to the island on the other side to cut wood. The Indians complained of hunger, whereupon Dougherty took them ashore with him.

Since the military here controls the importation of whiskey, our ship had to be unloaded and the bales casks were searched. A certain number were confiscated from Mr. Mc Kenzie, and they also wanted to take a small cask from me, but Dougherty recovered it—something that Mr. Mc Kenzie rather took amiss. Whiskey may not be brought into Indian Territory. This law has been in effect since lastyear last

year. Several officers went back and forth all day; our cabin was like a dovecote; but the one who had charge of the whiskey inspection was rather deliberate about it. They sat there lazily all day with their legs resting on the gallery. Major Bean (Indian agent) came on board with his baggage. Some of the gentlemen from our ship passed the day with the officers; I remained at home. Close to the bank where the ship lay at anchor, the limestone strata were all filled with interesting shells, several of which we took along. Intermittent on between these limestone deposits there were thin layers of a hardened blackish blue argillaceous slate, which had not yet hardened very much. On the bank, black oak and other trees were blooming, as [were] several interesting plants, including a small Oxalis with bulbous root and pale violet flower. Violets (Viola) in large number. Mr. Bodmer had seen a blackbird black - bird with a yellow head.M43And had caught a small species of tree frog, which
probably is still not described (see the natural historical diary
and Mr. Bodmer’s drawing).

At twelve o’ clock, 82°F [27.8°C] on the ship. One of the officers related that, during the campaign against Black Hawk, he had lost all the hair on his head because of excessive heat, since he was wearing a tight leather cap; it became better when holes were cut into it. During the summer the heat is said to be [so] terribly intense on the prairies [that] people have often lain down in the water, but in many places in the prairies there is a shortage of water.

Monday, April 22, 1833
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Ben Budesheim